Grammar of Biblical Hebrew

In his Syntax of the Verb in Classical Hebrew Prose, 9, Alviero Niccacci describes his struggle as a budding scholar and professor to come to terms with the syntax of the biblical Hebrew verb. He states:

While looking for a solution which I could offer my students I came across two review articles by E. Talstra … and, in consequence, the work he reviewed. This was W[olfgang] Schneider’s grammar, an unpretentious class text book which has gone almost unnoticed by scholars. … The truth is that Schneider has opened the way for an approach to the problem which I believe to be correct.

31LkBzSvziLDuring my doctoral studies, I was introduced to the work of Wolfgang Schneider, Grammatik des biblischen Hebräisch. As I moved into teaching biblical Hebrew and began to work through the standard textbooks in English, I found that I continually wanted to expose my students to Schneider’s text-linguistic approach. Therefore, I worked to translate his grammar, beginning with the section on syntax and eventually working through the whole volume. The resultant text has now been published by Peter Lang as the first installment in its Studies in Biblical Hebrew monograph series. You may find it here or here (among other places).

 

Schneider’s grammar is a reference grammar, so it is not necessarily intended to be used by simply beginning with section 1 and continuing through the text. I found it helpful to create accompanying worksheets to help the students; if you are interested in seeing what I put together (or have any other questions), please let me know. I have also made several posts regarding Schneider’s work on the tenses and clauses.

Psalm 123

Like the three previous Songs of Ascents [see previous posts on Psalms 120, 121, 122], Psalm 123 opens in the first person singular, meaning that an individual is speaking using “I” or “me.” Also, like Psalms 120 and 121, the psalm does not identify the speaker. In these cases, they are written as expressions of any of the faithful who are personally committed to Yhwh and find themselves on a journey to meet with him. But, like the speakers in the previous psalms, the unnamed speaker of Psalm 123 is addressing a prayer to Yhwh because of a precarious situation. In this case, as vv. 2–3 make clear, the speaker joins with the congregation as one seeking the grace of Yhwh, and about this request, they are desperate.

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So the poet begins: “To you I lift up my eyes, O you who are enthroned in the heavens!” As is readily apparent, there is somewhat of an echo here with Ps 121:1–2 both in the lifting of the eyes and in the use of heaven(s).[1] In Psalm 121, the psalmist expressed confidence in lifting the eyes to the mountains because help was coming from Yhwh, who is the maker of heaven and earth. Here the psalmist directs an address to Yhwh in a personal way (“to you”) but then identifies the object of that gaze as the one who sits in the heavens. He is both the one who made the heavens, and he is the one who dwells above mankind in the heavens, perhaps metaphorically speaking. Thus, lifting the eyes is the certain posture of the one who directs his or her attention to Yhwh.[2]

Elsewhere, the Psalter describes Yhwh as the one dwelling in the heavens (among other places, such as 11:4) in Ps 2:4, where the one sitting in the heavens cannot but laugh at those who would dare try to usurp him and his king. But much in the same way that Psalms 1 and 2 laid out a definite relationship between Yhwh and the righteous versus Yhwh and the wicked, so here the speaker does not find a God who scoffs at him, rather, the speaker looks with hopeful expectation at this God.caesarea-051.jpg

The poet further describes what is meant by the lifting of the eyes and the significance of such by making an analogy in v. 2a: “Behold, as the eyes of servants look to the hand of their master, as the eyes of a maidservant to the hand of her mistress, so our eyes look to the Lord our God.”

And the psalmist’s point is driven home by a clear use of repetition in the parallelism throughout vv. 1–2. Consider the following (my translation for clarity sake):

To you I lift my eyes.
Like the eyes of servants to the hand
Like the eyes of a maidservant to the hand
Thus our eyes to Yhwh, our God.[3]

The you of “to you” in v. 1 has now been identified as (1) the one who is enthroned in the heavens and (2) Yhwh our God. Yhwh, the covenant God, is both the majestic king of the heavens and the personal God of Israel. As such, the writer pens a request by the people reasonably founded upon their knowledge of Yhwh as the mighty King of heaven and the personal God of his people.

With their God properly identified, the congregation commits to lift their eyes to Yhwh their God “till he has mercy upon us” (v. 2b). They long for grace, and they are confident that Yhwh has the ability and desire to bring it about. They will not turn their eyes until he does it. They desire mercy so intently that the author uses step parallelism (or anadiplosis) once again to focus the reader’s attention upon it. V. 2 ends with the phrase “he has mercy upon us,” and v. 3 begins with the imperative, “Have mercy upon us.” What is more, the imperative is repeated, “Have mercy upon us.”

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But why do they need the grace (or mercy) of Yhwh? According to v. 3b, because “we have had more than enough of contempt.” The people of Yhwh feel satiated with the sins of those with whom they dwell (see also Psalm 120). Although there is not a specific setting that is described here, it seems that the psalm is intended to fit any situation in which the people of God are the object of contempt.

Moreover, 3 of the 4 (Hebrew) words of v. 3b are repeated in v. 4:[4] “Our soul has had more than enough of the scorn of those who are at ease, of the contempt of the proud.” The writer echoes a complaint of Asaph in Psalm 73.

While waiting for worship and satisfaction in a peaceful, New Jerusalem (Psalm 122), the people of God ought to continue to lift up their eyes to the one who dwells in the heavens and to ask for his grace.[5] David will reflect on this, as well, in the Psalm 124.

Notes

[1] As such, Pss 121 and 123 form a kind of parenthesis around the center of this third of the Songs of Ascents, namely, Psalm 122. It should be noted that 121:1 uses the yiqtol; 123:1 the qatal.

[2] A good example of this is also seen in Dan 9:3: “I turned my face to the Lord God, seeking him by prayer and please for mercy….” The first phrase is not the same, but note how the face is being turned toward the Lord looking for mercy.

[3] Psalm 122 also spoke of “our God” (122:9). These are the only 2 occurrences of this phrase in the Songs of Ascents. It occurs also in Ps 135:2 in the phrase “house of our God,” which only occurs in Ezra-Nehemiah.

[4] With the other being implied (“for”).

[5] Zenger, 468 believes that Pss 123 and 124 form a unit: “Dass JHWH seiner Fürsorgepflicht nachkommt, wird freilich im folgenden Ps 124 feierlich proklamiert. In dieser Hinsicht bilden Ps 123 and Ps 124 eine kompositionelle Einheit.”

Psalm 121

In vv. 1–2, Psalm 121 begins with an individual in need of help, in much the same way that Psalm 120 expresses the plea of an individual in dire circumstances. Yet, unlike the previous psalm, here the psalmist declares a desire to look to the mountains and recognize whence personal help comes.[1]

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View from the Mt. of Olives

Eyes Lifted to the Creator (vv. 1–2)

I lift up my eyes to the hills. From where does my help come?
My help comes from the Lord, who made heaven and earth.

Once again, as in 120:6–7, the poet binds these two verses together with step parallelism. The final word of v. 1 (“my help”) becomes the launching point for v. 2 (“my help”).[2] As such, the first two verses focus on identifying the psalmist’s help, namely, Yhwh, the Maker of heaven and earth.[3] The psalmist’s help comes from the covenant, creator God. The one who is there with the speaker is the same one who demonstrated his power by creating all things. The writer’s “hope is not in the mountains (v.1), but in the One who made the mountains.”[4] In another of the Songs of the Ascents, the congregation as a whole will echo this claim: “Our help is in the name of the Lord, who made heaven and earth” (124:3).

SONY DSCAs the Creator, Yhwh has the authority and ability to do what the psalmist claims in the rest of the psalm, as it moves from a first person wish to a description of Yhwh’s work on behalf of the one addressed as “you” in the next six verses.

Your Keeper (vv. 3–8)

The remainder of the psalm focuses on Yhwh’s relationship to Israel as her protector. In vv. 3–5, Yhwh is described as her “keeper,” while in vv. 7–8 the psalmist expresses confidence that Yhwh “will keep.” As discussed in the comments on Psalm 120 (part 2), there is a close relationship between the Songs of Ascents and the Priestly Blessing of Numbers 6:24–26. The use of the word for “keep” in Psalm 121 highlights this connection (“Yhwh bless you and keep you”).[5]

Poetically, the author has used the verb “to keep” to structure the parallelism of these verses. In vv. 3–5, there is a 3-fold use of the verb as a participle (“the one who keeps”). In vv. 7–8, the root is again used as an imperfect verb (“he will keep”). What is more, v. 5 makes two statements about Yhwh, placing his name in first position, as also occurs in vv. 7, 8. Structurally, then, this leaves v. 6 as the odd man out. However, in v. 6, the poet uses another literary device that is not readily obvious in English versions. The structure of the verse could be shown like this:

A          By day
B          the sun
C         it will not strike you
B’         and the moon
A’         by night.

This is a common Hebrew poetic device known as chiasm, which is frequent in the Psalter but otherwise not used in this psalm. Normally, the focus of the chiasm is the middle element(s), which in this case would again be on the personal protection that Yhwh offers an individual, a theme upon which the psalm brings focus. This is true because Yhwh is not just the protector of Israel (v. 4: “he who keeps Israel”); his protection extends to the individual, as the constant repetition of “you(r)” indicates. Ten times in these six verses the psalmist uses a singular form of “you”:

  • He will not let your foot be moved; he who keeps you will not slumber. (v. 3)
  • The Lord is your keeper; the Lord is your shade on your right hand. (v. 5)[6]
  • The sun shall not strike you by day, nor the moon by night. (v. 6)[7]
  • The Lord will keep you from all evil; he will keep your (v. 7)[8]
  • The Lord will keep your going out and your coming in from this time forth and forevermore. (v. 8)

Far from being an impersonal creator, Yhwh is a personal protector.[9] And this is a message that the psalm sounds like a constant drumbeat, reminding the readers (or hearers) of Yhwh’s protecting hand.

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Summarizing the message of the psalm: For the psalmist and also for subsequent readers, confidence in help comes from embracing these facts:

  1. Help comes from Yhwh, the one who is present, who is there, and is in covenant with Israel.
  2. Help comes from the Creator of all things, the all-powerful God.
  3. Help comes from the one who, therefore, has the ability to keep (or protect) Israel. V. 4 is the only verse in vv. 3–8 that is not personalized to “you.”
  4. Help comes from the one who personally protects those who are his.
  5. Yhwh’s help extends from the present into the eschaton.

As such, the individual can take these second-person truths to his or herself; the “you” can become “me.” At the same time, the declarations of vv. 7–8 regarding Yhwh and the protection that he offers are by no means just hoping that he will protect. Rather it seems that these verses declare something that Yhwh does as part of who he is. In v. 7 and v. 8, the name Yhwh is given first position in the sentence, meaning that what is being said in these verses is stated about Yhwh.[10] They could be translated as follows:

As for Yhwh, he will keep you from all evil.
As for Yhwh,[11] he will keep your soul.
As for Yhwh, he will keep your going out and coming in.

Yhwh provides protection and preservation. Moreover, because Yhwh is the maker of heaven and earth (v. 2), he by authority and ability is one who can fulfill his promised protection. As such, this psalm gives an important commentary on (or exposition of) the Priestly Blessing: Saying “Yhwh bless you and keep you” is not just an empty saying expressing a petitioner’s wish. No, it is a blessing based on the unchangeable nature of their creator, covenant God. In other words, these are not just powerful wishes but divine promises of such blessings. Furthermore, according to the psalmist, Yhwh’s personal protection extends from the present into the eternal future (v. 8 “from now until forever”).[12] The psalm, in keeping with the theme of the Songs of Ascents, interprets the Priestly Blessing as extending from creation to the eschatological rebuilding of the Davidic kingdom.

The reader can thus look with certainty toward the Keeper of Israel as the journey toward Jerusalem, the city of David, continues. The adjoining of Psalm 121 with Psalm 122 highlights this connection. Going to Jerusalem is a good thing because the house of Yhwh and the throne of David are there. Therefore, the peace sought by the speaker of Psalm 120 and the hope sought in the protection of Yhwh of Psalm 121 find their answer in the journey toward Jerusalem of Psalm 122.

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Notes

[1] There is much disagreement over how this verse should be understood. Do the mountains represent a source of danger? Are the mountains seen negatively as sanctuaries of foreign gods? Are the mountains to be seen positively as the place where God is enthroned (123:1)? Is the reference to the mountains of Jerusalem or mountains along the path back to Jerusalem? I think the volitional use of the imperfect in v. 1 helps determine the intention. The psalmist expresses desire to lift his eyes to the hills, which appears to me to be a positive intention. Why would someone express desire to lift one’s eyes to an imminent threat? Perhaps Allen, 150 has an adequate translation: “I look up to the mountains to see where my help is to come from.”

[2] The English word order doesn’t allow this to be conveyed adequately. A more literal translation might be, “From where does it come, namely my help. My help comes ….”

[3] Zenger, 439, writes: “Die in Ps 121 gegebene Kombination von Schöpfungstheologie (V 1–2) und Geschichtstheologie (V 3–8)—deren Interdependenz ist typisch für das Gesamtkonzept der Priesterschrift—begegnet ebenso in Jes 40–55!” The combination of creation theology (vv. 1–2) and theology of history (vv. 3–8)—whose interdependence is typical for the entire program of the Priestly strand—is encountered as well in Isaiah 40–55!

[4] Sailhamer, 218.

[5] Quote Liebreich here on Psalm 120.

[6] This verse needs more explanation.

[7] This verse needs more explanation.

[8] The clearer statements of v. 7 shed light on the metaphorical ones in vv. 5–6.

[9] Note the interplay of the personal name of Yhwh and his designation as Creator in v. 2.

[10] Specifically, we have examples of compound nominal clauses in which the statements about Yhwh are nominalized.

[11] Although not there, it is implied in the parallelism of v. 7.

[12] The phrase “from now until forever” occurs in the Songs of Ascents in 125:2 and 131:3. The only other places it occurs are Pss 113:2; 115:18; Isa 9:6 [7]; 59:20–21; Mic 4:7. Each of these passages shares other connections with the Songs of Ascents. Interestingly, in Mic 4:7, it is Yhwh reigning on Mount Zion “from now until forever,” which echoes a theme inherent to the Songs of Ascents, as well. Mic 4:7 follows the clear eschatological hope of a return to a restored Zion where Yhwh dwells (quoted from Isaiah 2). It includes the phrase “the last days” (4:1), giving it eschatological implications. The context of Isaiah 9:6 also complements the Songs of Ascents in that it speaks of the king who sits on the throne of David “from now until forever.” This should be highlighted in the comments on 131:3, where Psalms 131–133 bring the role of David to attention. Also, Zion, a theme of the Songs of Ascents, appears in the context of the Isaiah 59 passage. Finally, the passages in Psalm 113 and 115 occur within the context of a call for blessing Yhwh.

Psalm 120 (part 2)

SONY DSCIn a previous post, I discussed how Psalm 120:1-2 lays the theological foundation for this individual psalm as well as the collection of Songs of Ascents. According to v. 1, the speaker has called to Yahweh in the past and received an answer. Thus, he calls once again to Yhwh for deliverance from a specific enemy: deceptive lips (v. 2). The rest of the psalm will show the speaker’s expectation of Yhwh’s response and how the speaker responds from the midst of distress.

Addressing the Tongue of Deceit (vv. 3–4)

3 מַה־יִּתֵּ֣ן לְ֭ךָ וּמַה־יֹּסִ֥יף לָ֗ךְ לָשׁ֥וֹן רְמִיָּֽה׃
4 חִצֵּ֣י גִבּ֣וֹר שְׁנוּנִ֑ים עִ֜֗ם גַּחֲלֵ֥י רְתָמִֽים׃

3 What shall be given to you, and what more shall be done to you, you deceitful tongue?
4 A warrior’s sharp arrows, with glowing coals of the broom tree! (ESV)

The phrase, “tongue of deceit,” with which v. 2 ends, also is the last phrase in v. 3. However, as the speaker transitions from addressing Yhwh to addressing his enemies, the phrase clarifies to whom the psalmist speaks in v. 3.[1] While v. 2 addresses Yhwh, v. 3 addresses the wicked one directly, raising the specter of what should be done to him. Most English versions follow the LXX and translate the verbs of v. 2 in the passive. However, as an alternative, the Masoretic Text implies Yhwh as the subject of the verbs, as translated by the NIV: “What will he do to you, and what more besides, you deceitful tongue?”[2] Since vv. 2 and 3 are tied closely with their balanced parallelism and the repetition of deceitful tongue, it would seem that the speaker understands the fate of the deceitful speakers comes from Yhwh. Thus, perhaps the active verbs convey this more appropriately.

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Either way, v. 4 provides the answer to the question: “A warrior’s sharp arrows, with glowing coals of the broom tree!” Leaving the difficult details of the broom tree aside, the point seems to be figurative, as Yhwh responds in kind to the deceitful speaker (see Ps 2:5 as a possible background to this). On v. 4, Allen states, “The reference to weapons presupposes their metaphorical usage for slander, as in 52:4 (2); 57:5 (4); Jer 9:2, 7 (3, 8). Cf. especially 64:4, 8 (3, 7) where arrows of divine retribution are promised to arrowlike words.”[3]

Woe to Me (vv. 5–7)

5 אֽוֹיָה־לִ֭י כִּי־גַ֣רְתִּי מֶ֑שֶׁךְ שָׁ֜כַ֗נְתִּי עִֽם־אָהֳלֵ֥י קֵדָֽר׃
6 רַ֭בַּת שָֽׁכְנָה־לָּ֣הּ נַפְשִׁ֑י עִ֜֗ם שׂוֹנֵ֥א שָׁלֽוֹם׃
7 אֲֽנִי־שָׁ֭לוֹם וְכִ֣י אֲדַבֵּ֑ר הֵ֜֗מָּה לַמִּלְחָמָֽה׃

5 Woe to me, that I sojourn in Meshech, that I dwell among the tents of Kedar!
6 Too long have I had my dwelling among those who hate peace.
7 I am for peace, but when I speak, they are for war! (ESV)

In v. 5, the text returns to the first person with the attention getting, “Woe to me!”, which introduces a further description of the psalmist’s plight, echoing the cry with which the psalm begins: “the distress that came to me.” On the one hand, the cry is, “I sojourn in Meshech”; on the other, “I dwell among the tents of Kedar.” The identity of these two references is difficult, not least of which because they are not the same place. It seems to be that the psalmist speaks of two separate places in order to focus attention on the vastness of the suffering. In other words, the point is not so much to describe a literal residence in Meshech and Kedar,[4] but rather to describe how the psalmist has often resided with those who in Scripture are identified as having military prowess.[5] This interpretation fits the military metaphors of vv. 4 and 7 quite well. In addition, reference to Meshech and Kedar identify the psalmist’s residence as outside the land.

Despite the ambiguity that the Meshech and Kedar references raise, the parallelism extending into v. 6 clarifies what the psalmist intends to convey. The picture painted in v. 5 receives a direct explanation in v. 6: “Too long have I had my dwelling among those who hate peace.”[6] These verses are connected by the verb “dwell” and the preposition “with.” In a sense, the phrase “tents of Kedar” parallels “those who hate peace,” giving the impression that the tents of Kedar were characterized by lack of peace (or perhaps propensity for war). As such, the poetic parallelism brings about the comparison: Like one who dwells outside the land among the tents of my enemies, so I have dwelled too long with those who are against peace. The point is not so much where the one praying is found, but how the one praying is found (see Ps 61:2–3).

And with the mention of peace (shalom), the author gets to a vital aspect of the prayer, as the importance of the concept is highlighted by poetic parallelism. Characteristic of the Songs of Ascents is a literary device called step parallelism, in which a word or phrase that concludes one line is taken up at the beginning of the next.[7] Not only does this bring focus upon this word or phrase, but it also functions as a binding element between lines. Here, then, the author uses several poetic features to connect vv. 5–7, which are an extended expression of the speaker’s dire circumstances.

In addition, a greater concern seems to be at play here in the larger context. Peace is one of four words that connect the Songs of Ascents with the Priestly Blessing (Num 6:24–26):[8]

The Lord bless you and keep you;
the Lord make his face to shine upon you and be gracious to you;
the Lord lift up his countenance upon you and give you peace.

Each of the highlighted words comes to the forefront of the theology of the Songs of Ascents. In this particular case, peace plays an important role (as the parallelism highlights) and will later be connected to the future of Jerusalem.[9] In this way, the Songs of Ascents, beginning with the first one, act as a virtual commentary on what the enacting of this blessing looks like as well as how to pray in light of it.

Brought to the front of v. 7 is the personal pronoun, “I,” giving the literal understanding, “I am (for) peace.” In the second half of v. 7 is the personal pronoun, “they,” with the understanding, “they are for war.” Yet, the phrase, “but when I speak,” falls between these two phrases, causing an issue for translation and interpretation.[10] Whatever the case, v. 7 brings focus on the distinct contrast of the words of the psalmist with that of his enemies, who are personified as “lying lips” and “a deceitful tongue” (v. 2).[11] The psalmist, like the priests commissioned to speak a blessing on the people of Yhwh, speaks of and for peace. As such, his words not only reflect the pattern of speaking of peace as a blessing of Yhwh but also as a hope for that blessing. Yhwh desires to bless his people with peace as his name is spoken over them (Numbers 6); the exiled psalmist speaks of that peace as well, longing for the time when such peace would banish ongoing distress.

Thus, the psalm ends with this contrast between speaking peace and speaking war. Despite the peace-speaking of the psalmist, a lack of peace (i.e., the presence of distress) still exists. One cannot help but feel that the psalm is somewhat incomplete. Yes, the psalmist believes that Yhwh hears his call and therefore prays for deliverance. And yes, the psalmist recognizes explicitly the punishment needed upon those who speak falsely. Yet, the psalm never shows the response. Two explanations can elucidate this.

Perhaps, first, as the gateway to the Songs of Ascents, the writer pens a psalm intended to be timeless and always applicable to those who long for and are seeking refuge back in the land. God’s exiled people should always call out to him wherever they find themselves. There is at the beginning, then, a pattern by which all the faithful of subsequent generations might appeal to God’s faithfulness in answering their cry for help until the eschaton.

But perhaps, second, the psalm simply begins a path toward peace subsequently paved by the rest of the Songs of Ascents. In other words, the situation of God’s displaced people, as represented by the individual psalmist (the lost sheep from Psalm 119) who seeks peace, serves as the foundation from which to understand the rest of the Songs. Moreover, the answer to the psalmist’s plea for deliverance from Yhwh finds an answer in lifting one’s eyes to a powerful helper who keeps his people, i.e. the helper described in Psalm 121. If this proves to be the case, then the answer to the psalmist’s prayer would not be found in the person of the suppliant (or in any other human’s efforts for that matter), even if the answer to what will be given to the wicked one is war. Rather, the help needed is not so much from a warrior, as depicted metaphorically (or not?) in Psalm 120, but from Yhwh, the one who secures the psalmist’s (and listeners’) feet.

Notes

[1] There is some debate over whether this phrase in v. 3 is a gloss. However, I believe it is a necessary element to show who the “you” of v. 3 actually is. The reason this is needed is because of the change in address from Yhwh to the wicked. So while it certainly lies outside the strict, grammatical parallelism of the rest of v. 3, it certainly applies these phrases to the deceitful one the writer addresses. Moreover, the phrase causes vv. 2 and 3 to be balanced.

[2] Zenger states that Yhwh is the subject of the verb “to give” as in “what more shall he [Yhwh] give” (408–409). In this, he is following the MT, as the NIV does.

[3] Leslie C. Allen, Psalms 101-150, 146.

[4] Although there would probably be exiles in both, therefore the statement would be universally applicable. This highlights the conclusion later that this is intended as a timeless prayer for all who find themselves outside the land.

[5] On Meshech, see Ezek 32:26; 38:2–4; 39:1–3. On Kedar, see Isa 21:16, 17. Like those described in the prophets Ezekiel and Isaiah, the psalmist’s enemies are “for war” (v. 7). Although, see Goldingay, Psalms, 3:452: “These two peoples were not thought of as more warlike or hostile to Judeans than many others. They are simply alien, mysterious, far-off peoples. They might then simply stand for typical places where Judeans might live as a scattered people as a result of ‘the’ exile.”

[6] Regarding poetic parallelism, v. 6 demonstrates how the poet writes about similar (synonymous?) thoughts using a variety of expressions. In this case, the writer could have simply continued the verbal forms from v. 5 (“I sojourn” and “I dwell”). Yet, instead v. 6 begins with an adverbial modifier and expresses “I dwell” with the more literal and complex “my soul makes its dwelling.” On the one hand, this breaks what could be redundancy from v. 5; on the other hand, it begs the question of why this occurs. From a poetic side, by using this phrase, the poetry seems to make even more clear that the phrases “with the tents of Kedar” and “with those who hate peace” should be read in parallel, because v. 6a balances the verse (see the Hebrew text and accenting) with the expression “for I sojourn in Meshech.” As such, it sets v. 6 in a position as dependent (or following from) the introductory phrase “woe to me” of v. 5. Could be set in parallel like this:

Woe to me,
that I sojourn in Meshech, that I dwell      among the tents of Kedar!
Too long have I had my dwelling                among those who hate peace.

So, whereas “I sojourn” and “I dwell” are clearly the same tense and therefore call for asking why they are put in parallel, the author seems to have done more by using a more complex parallelism across vv. 5–6. This is also highlighted by the similarity in the sounds in Hebrew of “tents of” and “who hate.” And this extends via step parallelism into v. 7. It is fascinating, the way that poetry allows the writer to make such intricate and subtle expressions.

[7] Another example is the use of “help” in 121:1, 2.

[8] See Liebreich, “The Songs of Ascents and the Priestly Blessing,” JBL, 33.

My thought: The Songs of Ascents are an eschatological (or royal?) interpretation/application of the Priestly Blessing based upon the psalmists’ hope in Yhwh’s faithfulness to fulfill the promises of the Davidic Covenant. Building off of Zenger’s notion of the purpose of the first 5 Songs of Ascents, this group would contribute to this larger purpose by connecting lament and cry for help from their souls with the trusting search for “blessing” (cf. 124:6; 134:1). Psalm 121 certainly helps cement the relationship to the Priestly Blessing with the use of “keep.”

Question to ask, Where is the eschatological emphasis in these first 5 psalms? See 121:8; 125:2; 131:3, where in each case the phrase “from now to forever” occurs. Cf. also 2Chr 36:23 (go up, house for Yhwh, Yhwh with him) as a parallel passage speaking of an eschatological return from exile.

This quote from Hutchinson makes a good point regarding the whole Psalter: “[T]here is an eschatological or teleological thrust to the book of Psalms, as signaled right from the start by the introductory and programmatic Ps. 2. The community of Israelites into whose hands the Psalter first came may have been back in the land, but they were still liable to be bewildered by Yahweh’s apparent cancellation of his promises to David. The Psalter insists that the king of Ps. 2 will appear – an absolutely supreme righteous ruler who will be greater than Solomon (Pss. 45; 72), in whom the Abrahamic promises will find fulfilment (72:17b), a ‘horn . . . for David’ (132:17) whose coming will prove that Yahweh has not renounced his commitment to the Davidic covenant. Book V couches this glorious prospect in the imagery of a return from exile (Ps. 107), a new exodus (Pss. 114; 135–136) and a journey to Zion (Pss. 120–134); yet post-exilic worshippers, despite being physically present in Jerusalem, must await the fulfilment of these realities.” (97–98) In James Hely Hutchinson, “The Psalms and Praise,” Interpreting the Psalms: Issues and Approaches.

Thus, adding these thoughts to my thesis above, the eschatological fulfillment of the Davidic covenant provides the basis for understanding the journey to Zion that is painted in these psalms not as a simple, historical pilgrimage theme but as a journey toward an idealized Zion in the eschaton (consider the relationship with Isaiah 2). Some points of emphasis about this: (1) 124:8, (2) Psalm 126 and the desire for Yhwh to do what he did when he brought them back to Zion before [thus the return from exile is still future], and (3) 131:3; 133:3.

[9] Consider 122:6–9; 125:2, 5; 128:5–6.

[10] Most English versions simply take it as a contrast with v. 7b: “But when I speak, they are for war.” Michel’s translation would be represented by the English translation, “When I begin to speak peace, they are for war.”

[11] Also, as Zenger (411) notes, v. 7 is a tricolon (unique within the psalm), which lends particular weight to the verse. He also makes the point that the psalm would have 15 colons, which would mirror the 15 psalms of the collection. Is this something to consider significant?

Psalm 120 (part 1)

SONY DSCA great while ago, I posted a short entry about the Songs of Ascents (Psalms 120-134). I thought I might follow this up with some thoughts about some of these psalms, beginning with Psalm 120, which I will break into two posts. The first will discuss vv. 1-2 and use them as a springboard to discuss some larger compositional observations within the Songs of Ascents and the Psalter.

I Call, Yahweh Answers (vv. 1–2)

1 אֶל־יְ֭הוָה בַּצָּרָ֣תָה לִּ֑י קָ֜רָ֗אתִי וַֽיַּעֲנֵֽנִי׃
2 יְֽהוָ֗ה הַצִּ֣ילָה נַ֭פְשִׁי מִשְּׂפַת־שֶׁ֑קֶר מִלָּשׁ֥וֹן רְמִיָּֽה׃

1 In my distress I called to the LORD, and he answered me.
2 Deliver me, O LORD, from lying lips, from a deceitful tongue. (ESV)

The first psalm in the Songs of Ascents opens with a declaration of certainty that Yhwh hears the call of the one who speaks peace (see v. 7) in the midst of a time of distress. The speaker goes nameless, as there is no name given in the title, so the only way to identify this one is to consider the context of the psalm. In this, there are at least two elements at work.

First, by virtue of the context of the psalm within the Psalter, the connection to Ps 119:176 (“I have gone astray like a lost sheep; seek your servant, for I do not forget your commandments.”) identifies the speaker as one who loves the torah of Yhwh and continues to heed it but at the same time is found wandering in a precarious situation and therefore seeks shepherding from Yhwh.[1] As seen in 120:5, the speaker of Psalm 120 sojourns in a most unwelcome place and seeks the help of Yhwh, just like the writer of Psalm 119.[2] Second, considering the structure of the present psalm, in v. 7 the speaker identifies himself as one who speaks peace in the midst of those who hate it. The peace-speaking psalmist contrasts himself sharply with those with whom he dwells, namely, those with a tongue of deception (v. 2) who hate peace (v. 6) and speak of war (v. 7).

Thus, the identity of the speaker as the one who wanders like a lost sheep amidst those who fight against peace highlights the nature of the Songs of Ascents. Throughout these 15 psalms, the speaker(s) long and hope for return to the land (specifically Zion) as part of a fulfillment of the promises made to David. Finding themselves in the midst of unrest, they hope for the peace, blessing, grace, protection, redemption, and security of the kingdom of Yhwh as administered by the son of David (see Psalm 132). With this hope, they often call out to Yhwh with the confidence that he will hear their prayers and grant them deliverance (or salvation). Ps 120:1 is a model of this expectation and sets the stage for the rest.[3] In this light, it is significant that the psalm itself as well as the whole collection begins with the prepositional phrase “to Yhwh,”[4] declaring from the beginning that the prayer of this psalm and the hope of those praying the psalms in this collection are directed toward Yhwh and Yhwh alone. He and He alone has been the God who hears and answers.[5] Psalm 120:1 is the gateway to the collection of Songs of Ascents in much the same way that Psalms 1 and 2 are the gateway to the Psalter.

SONY DSC

In 120:1, the psalmist uses an important pattern of verbal tenses to make clear the basis of this hope. Calling out to Yhwh and waiting for his answering is expressed quite a few ways in the Psalter and throughout the poetry of the Old Testament. But the poetry used in 120:1 enhances the certainty of the hope, for here a perfect tense verb (“I called”) is immediately followed by an imperfect consecutive (“and he answered me”).[6] While in English this may not be too elucidating (or exciting), in Hebrew such a pattern highlights how the second action results from the first. In other words, the phrase may be translated, “I called, and as a result (of my calling), he answered me.”[7] So in v. 1 the speaker—an example to those who would hear his words—reminds the reader that Yhwh is one to whom his followers should pray and from whom his followers should expect deliverance and protection (as will become apparent in Psalm 121). For in this case, the psalmist declares that he has experienced the resultant answer of a cry to Yhwh.

Although the details are not specified, the psalmist at some point was found in a personally desperate situation. The speaker brings focus upon the personal distress and upon the personal answer from Yhwh (“my distress … I called … answered me”). Just as the pain hit closely to home, so did the answer from God. In this verse, the speaker makes the observation that from personal experience it can be said about Yhwh that he is a God who hears and answers the prayers of his people (see 81:8; 99:6–8) and the prayers of individuals (as here in this psalm). In his example, the psalmist implies an answer to the question, “Why should a cry for help be directed toward Yhwh? Because when I have cried out to him, he has answered me.”

Thus, the speaker points to a distressing situation of the past, which fittingly has an interesting parallel to a desperate situation of a prophet, namely Jonah, and his plight in the belly of the fish. There are a number of specific details in both 120:1 and Jonah 2:3a (“I called out to Yhwh, out of my distress, and he answered me”) that highlight this relationship:

  • both use a poetic form of expressing “my distress,” which is found only in these two places,[8]
  • both have the prepositional phrase “to Yhwh” specifying to whom the call is addressed,
  • both use the same verbs for calling and answering, and
  • both use the same tenses for those verbs, which highlights the action of calling and the resulting action by Yhwh of answering.

The two verses vary only in their ordering, in the preposition used on the noun for “distress,” and in the form of the noun that Ps 120:1 uses.[9] It could be reasonably concluded that Jonah’s difficulty gives a narrative example of what calling/answering looks like. In the very least, Jonah’s prayer provides further content prayers of desperation by the readers.

mt-arbel-108.jpgSo the psalm begins with a recollection: “I have called out to Yhwh in the midst of my desperate situation in the past and he answered me.” Thus, the speaker turns in v. 2 to make a plea based upon that foundation. Because Yhwh has answered in the past, perhaps he might (or perhaps more confidently, “will”[10]) provide salvation from the present distress. So the psalm turns from recollection about speaking to Yhwh to actually addressing Yhwh directly. The psalmist calls out, “Deliver me, O Lord, from lying lips, from a deceitful tongue.” Using a figure of speech called a synecdoche in which a smaller part is used for the whole, the speaker calls out to Yhwh for deliverance from the one who speaks lies. The description of the wicked in v. 2 as those who sin with their lips enhances the contrast made at the end of the psalm where the peaceful speech of the psalmist is contrasted sharply with those of war (v. 7).

[to be continued]

Notes

[1] This assumption is based on the hermeneutical principle that the psalm as well as the Songs of Ascents have been purposely placed after Psalm 119, and that this is not just a result of coincidence. See the Introduction to the Songs of Ascents (to be written).

[2] Zenger (422) comments on the connection between Psalm 119 and the Songs of Ascents: “Beide entwerfen Modelle jüdischer Identität, zum einen mit der Tora als dem entscheidenden Medium der Begegnung mit JHWH and zum anderen mit dem Tempel als dem Ort der Gottespräsenz.” Both outline models of Jewish identity, on the one hand with the Torah as the distinct medium of the encounter with Yhwh and on the other hand with the temple as the place of the presence of God. As such, there is a coming together of Torah theology and Temple theology. See K. Nielsen, 57, 66.

Zenger, 423: “Am naheliegendsten ist allerdings die Nebeneinanderstellung von Ps 119 und Ps 120–134 im Horizont der von der Redaktion in Ps 107–136 gezeichneten Wiederherstellung und Erneuerung Israels als die Betonung komplementärer Lebensweisen zu begreifen (Tora und Zion).”

On connections between Psalm 119 and 120, see 119:145 and 120:1; 119:170, 175 and 120:2. Consider also the description of enemies (Ps 119:29, 86, 104, 118, 128). Also, “help” from Yhwh (119:173, 175 and 121:1f.; 124:8).

[3] Zenger (410) states: “Da V 1 der Anfang der Sammlung Ps 120–134 ist, entwirft der Vers so zugleich einen hermeneutischen Horizont, der für die in Ps 120–134 vollzogene Gebetsbewegung insgesamt bedeutsam ist.” Since v. 1 is the beginning of the collection of Ps 120–134, the verse thus outlines at the same time a hermeneutical horizon, which is altogether significant for the progression of prayer carried out in Pss 120–134.

[4] Despite the fact that this is not reflected in the English translations.

[5] See Zenger, 414. He makes the connection here to Ps 115:4–7 and the post-exilic theological statements regarding this. He also points to the example of Elijah and the prophets of Baal in 1 Kings 18. This is also quite explicit in the Davidic psalms of the first book of the Psalter (e.g., Pss 3:5; 4:2; 17:6; 18:7f.; 20:2, 10; 22:3, 22; 23:7).

Zenger, 415, states, “Dass JHWH der Gott ist, der antwortet, wenn er gerufen wird, ist das Thema des ‘Heilsorakels’, das in Ps 91,14–16 im tempeltheologischen (!) Kontext entfalten wird.” That Yhwh is the God who answers when he is called on, is the thema of the “salvation oracle,” which is developed in Ps 91:14–16 in the temple-theology (!) context.

And again, “Dieses Vertrauensbekenntnis proklamiert die Erhörungsgewissheit, auf der Ps 120 aufruht und die zugleich der hermeneutische Horizont der Sammlung Ps 120–134 überhaupt ist.” Of this confession of trust it proclaims the certainty of hearing, on which Psalm 120 rests and which is in general at the same time the hermeneutical horizon of the collection of Pss 120–134.

[6] The fact that a perfect occurs here is not too elucidating. There is much disagreement regarding this translation or sense of this formation (perfect – imperfect consecutive). While there are some (e.g., Duhm and Gunkel) who would adjust the imperfect consecutive into a simple imperfect form, it seems best to leave the text as it remains and determine how to translate the perfect (see Michel for reasons). Two options exist: (1) present translation and (2) past translation. Michel prefers a present translation; Zenger (408) a past translation. Interestingly, Zenger has missed (or at least not supported) Michel’s point about the wayyiqtol following a perfect as a result. I have tried to reflect this in my comments.

[7] There is some precedent for translating these verbs in the present tense in English (see the NIV and NRSV), which would highlight even more the certainty of the speaker. However, I have chosen to follow other English versions in understanding v. 1 as reflecting on the past as the basis for the hope that Yhwh will respond to the imperative (“deliver my soul”) of v. 2. [On understanding the tenses in this way, namely that a an imperfect consecutive following a perfect shows results/consequence, see Diethelm Michel, Tempora und Satzstellung in den Psalmen, § 1.]

[8] Specifically, they use the noun followed by the prepositional phrase “to/for me” to express possession. This is in contrast to other places where the psalmist simply uses the pronominal suffix on the noun (e.g. Ps 142:3).

[9] Ps 120:1 uses a unique form of the noun “distress, need.”

[10] even though Psalm 120 does not resolve the present situation

The Royal Son (Psalm 72)

It should go without saying in the church that our identity as Christians comes from our connection to the one whose name we bear—Christ. If we are truly convinced that a believer has a personal relationship with God, through Christ, by the power of the Holy Spirit, then it would behoove us to cultivate that relationship by investing our time in coming to know the one whom we serve. The way we do that is not through some mystic, sweet communion that is highly esoteric but through a consistent, lifelong commitment to learning about Christ. In other words, growing spiritually is paramount to growing in our knowledge of Christ.

This precedes all other efforts, because it is Christ Jesus Himself who has become to us “wisdom from God, and righteousness and sanctification, and redemption” (1Cor 1:30). In fact, before proceeding to tell us how to put off sin and to put on right actions, Paul says that in contrast to the lost, believers “did not learn Christ in this way” (Eph 4:20). What distinguishes us from unbelievers is that we have “learned” Christ. Even more, the large narrative of Scripture points to this One who was involved in creating the world and redeeming the world, whose name is the Son of God. The overwhelming testimony of Scripture as we have it points to the identity of this One in whom we find our new identity as children of God. He is the Messiah; His name is Jesus Christ, the Son of God. So from beginning to end, it’s all about Him—who He is, why He came, etc.

What this means for us, then, is this: if we want to know Christ, then we find Him on the pages of the Scripture that testifies to Him. Paul put it this way (1Cor 15:1–4):

Now I make known to you, brethren, the gospel which I preached to you, which also you received, in which also you stand, by which also you are saved, if you hold fast the word which I preached to you, unless you believed in vain. For I delivered to you as of first importance what I also received, that Christ died for our sins according to the Scriptures, and that He was buried, and that He was raised on the third day according to the Scriptures.

For the most part, I think we would all give a hearty, “Amen,” to that. After all, “Jesus loves me this I know, for the Bible tells me so.” Too often, however, I think we miss the full impact of what Paul is saying. Paul is saying that the Gospel as it had been revealed to him as an Apostle was none other than the truth of the Old Testament Scriptures. So let me ask you a question: If I were to cut off the final 27 books of the Bible you have before you, could you still lead someone to Christ? Could you give a Gospel presentation from the Old Testament?

You might answer, “Why bother. We have the NT.” Well, you may never have to. However, those who wrote the NT and those in the early church would have none of that. What they understood was that a comprehensive knowledge of Christ came only when He and His work, as well as the believer’s place in the story of the world, were understood in light of the texts that pointed to our Savior.

Like most books of the Old Testament (or “The Gospel According to the Prophets”), Psalms ultimately points us to the Son, the One who was to come and now has. Psalm 72 turns our attention to this King, teaching us about Him, about His kingdom, and ultimately about a proper response to Him.

What we find in Psalm 72 is another passage that points to the One who was to come, the Messiah. In it, the ideal reign of the king is described.[1] We thus see several aspects of this king and his kingdom and the author’s response to these things. Let me bring some of these to our attention.

Justice, Righteousness, and Peace (vv. 1–7)

Solomon begins his prayer for this king by asking the Lord to give the king his justice and righteousness. A good king would be one who led his people by justice and righteousness that is only truly provided by God Himself. That is, a godly ruler will rule as a reflection of the character of God, who is righteous and just.[2]

In Scripture, most kings aren’t like this. Sure, Solomon is given wisdom from the Lord and exemplifies it with the way he ruled the nation (at least for the most part). However, the overarching point of the story of Solomon is to show that he was not the son of David who would be the object of the promises the Lord made to David. In fact, given that we are reading a prayer written by Solomon for the future king reveals that he himself understood that the ideal king ruling over the ideal kingdom had yet to come. He could only hope and pray that one of his sons would be found worthy to rule as that king.

But as we know from Scripture, Solomon’s kingdom was ripped apart immediately after his death. Turmoil continued to ensue until ultimately David’s/Solomon’s kingdom was in shambles and in fact was overthrown and removed from the land. The “son of David” had yet to come.

The book of Psalms reflects this story as well as it is read as a book (see this post and this one). Two quotes by Hutchinson elucidate this point:

[P]raise in the Psalter arises particularly from a circumstance-defying belief that Yahweh’s covenant promises will come to realization – through the arrival of the Davidic king.[3]

[T]here is an eschatological or teleological thrust to the book of Psalms, as signaled right from the start by the introductory and programmatic Ps. 2. … The Psalter insists that the king of Ps. 2 will appear – an absolute supreme and righteous ruler who will be greater than Solomon (Pss. 45; 72), in whom the Abrahamic promises will find fulfilment (72:17b), a ‘horn … for David’ (132:17) whose coming will prove that Yahweh has not renounced his commitment to the Davidic covenant.[4]

Such a rule as depicted in these verses—one characterized by justice/equity for the oppressed, flourishing righteousness, and peace for all—could only be led by one who had been given divine ability to do so. Isaiah’s prophecy about this king reflects this (Isa 11:1–5):

Then a shoot will spring from the stem of Jesse, And a branch from his roots will bear fruit. The Spirit of the Lord will rest on Him, The spirit of wisdom and understanding, The spirit of counsel and strength, The spirit of knowledge and the fear of the Lord. And He will delight in the fear of the Lord, And He will not judge by what His eyes see, Nor make decisions by what His ears hear; But with righteousness He will judge the poor, And decide with fairness for the afflicted of the earth; And He will strike the earth with the rod of His mouth, And with the breath of His lips He will slay the wicked. Also righteousness will be the belt about His loins, And faithfulness the belt about His waist.

Dominion, Worship, and Compassion (vv. 8–14)

V. 8 joins with other important messianic passages in the OT to point unambiguously to a king who would come and would one day enjoy a universal reign. Consider the following verses:

Numbers 24:17–19
I see him, but not now; I behold him, but not near; A star shall come forth from Jacob, A scepter shall rise from Israel, And shall crush through the forehead of Moab, And tear down all the sons of Sheth. Edom shall be a possession, Seir, its enemies, also will be a possession, While Israel performs valiantly. One from Jacob shall have dominion, And will destroy the remnant from the city.

Psalm 110:2
The Lord will stretch forth Your strong scepter from Zion, saying, “Rule in the midst of Your enemies.”

Zechariah 9:9–10
Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Shout in triumph, O daughter of Jerusalem! Behold, your king is coming to you; He is just and endowed with salvation, Humble, and mounted on a donkey, Even on a colt, the foal of a donkey. I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim And the horse from Jerusalem; And the bow of war will be cut off. And He will speak peace to the nations; And His dominion will be from sea to sea, And from the River to the ends of the earth.

According to vv. 9–11, the response to this king’s rule should be marked by (1) compulsory submission (v. 9), (2) tribute from other kings (v. 10), and (3) worship by kings and all nations (v. 11). Interestingly, though, the reason for this response is given in vv. 12–14: the king’s disposition and beneficent actions toward those in need.[5]

Blessing and A Name (vv. 15–17)

Solomon concludes his prayer by focusing our minds around an important biblical theme—blessing. These verses tie the rule of the king to the promises made to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. In Genesis 12:1–3, God called upon Abraham to leave his father’s land and to become the recipient of divine favor and blessing as the Lord made these promises to him:

I will make you a great nation, And I will bless you, And make your name great; And so you shall be a blessing; And I will bless those who bless you, And the one who curses you I will curse. And in you all the families of the earth will be blessed.

Thus, the following connections between Genesis 12 and Psalm 72 can be made:

  • Abraham’s name would be great, just as the king’s name would be.
  • Abraham would be blessed, just as the psalmist calls upon all to bless the king.
  • All nations would find their blessing in Abraham’s seed, just as all nations would find their blessing in the king.

The Response: Blessing, Name and Glory (vv. 18–19)

Vv. 18–19, while capping off the second book of psalms, plays an important role in bringing this prayer for the king directly into the reader’s life. The proper response, as given by the author, is to bless the Lord.

What I find interesting is how this doxology, which plays an important role in the larger context of the Psalter, also connects to the psalm we just read.

  • Just as the king was to be blessed by all nations, so the psalmist gives a two-fold “blessing” to the Lord.
  • Just as the king’s name would endure forever, so the psalmist proclaim: “Blessed be His glorious name forever.”
  • Just as the king’s kingdom would stretch from sea to sea, so the psalmist prays: “May the whole earth be filled with His glory.”

I believe it’s quite likely that the object of this last request is none other than the king that is described in the psalm. Consider these two passages from Isaiah

6:1–3 – “In the year of King’s Uzziah’s death I saw the Lord sitting on a throne, lofty and exalted, with the train of His robe filling the temple. … And one called out to another and said, ‘Holy, Holy, Holy, is the Lord of hosts, The whole earth is full of His glory.’”

11:9 – “They will not hurt or destroy in all My holy mountain, For the earth will be full of the knowledge of the Lord As the waters cover the sea.”

In this light, this also agrees with the NT conclusion about Christ. The earth will be filled with the glory of God by means of the Son, who bears the name Lord. Consider what Paul says (Phil 2:9–11): “God highly exalted Him, and bestowed on Him the name which is above every name, so that at the name of Jesus every knee will bow, of those who are in heaven and on earth and under the earth, and that every tongue will confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory of God the Father.”

Without a doubt, these last verses bring the psalm to its rightful end: The son of Solomon, the son of David, the One who was to come, deserves and will receive worship, fear, praise, glory that only God deserves. The conclusion: He is divine, the son of God; He is our Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ.

How then do we respond?

  1. By repenting of our rebellion to this king. In Acts 17:30–31, Paul said to a group of unbelieving Gentiles: “Therefore having overlooked the times of ignorance, God is now declaring to men that all people everywhere should repent, because He has fixed a day in which He will judge the world in righteousness through a Man whom He has appointed, having furnished proof to all men by raising Him from the dead.”
  2. By embracing the Lordship of this king, who came and who is yet to come. “If you confess with your mouth Jesus as Lord, and believe in your heart that God raised Him from the dead, you will be saved” (Rom 10:9).
  3. By singing the blessing of the psalm to the Lord.

In 1719, Isaac Watts published his Psalms of David, Imitated in the Language of the New Testament, which included hymns based on 138 of the 150 psalms. His purpose was to “accommodate the book of Psalms to Christian worship.” Among these hymns was a paraphrase or imitation of the second half of Psalm 72 named “Jesus Shall Reign Where’er the Sun.” It’s readily apparent from reading the words of Watts’ hymn that he saw in Psalm 72 a call for the Gospel to extend to the nations. Note how his words reflect this psalm:

Jesus shall reign where’er the sun
Does his successive journeys run;
His kingdom stretch from shore to shore,
Till moons shall wax and wane no more.

To Him shall endless prayer be made,
And praises throng to crown His head;
His Name like sweet perfume shall rise
With every morning sacrifice.

People and realms of every tongue
Dwell on His love with sweetest song;
And infant voices shall proclaim
Their early blessings on His Name.

Blessings abound wherever He reigns;
The prisoner leaps to lose his chains;
The weary find eternal rest,
And all the sons of want are blessed.

Let every creature rise and bring
Peculiar honors to our King;
Angels descend with songs again,
And earth repeat the loud amen!

Great God, whose universal sway
The known and unknown worlds obey,
Now give the kingdom to Thy Son,
Extend His power, exalt His throne.

With power He vindicates the just,
And treads th’oppressor in the dust:
His worship and His fear shall last
Till hours, and years, and time be past.

The saints shall flourish in His days,
Dressed in the robes of joy and praise;
Peace, like a river, from His throne
Shall flow to nations yet unknown.


[1] Although it appears I am just assuming this psalm is messianic, the messianic character will become more apparent throughout these comments.

[2] This is borne out on the seams of the Psalter, as well. Cf. Pss 41:1–2; 89:14; 106:3; 146:3ff.

[3] James Hely Hutchinson, “The Psalm and Praise,” in Interpreting the Psalms: Issues and Approaches, ed. David Firth and Philip S. Johnston (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 2005), 97.

[4] Hutchinson, 97–98.

[5] “The king of Psalm 72 is to exercise it [power] in a direction contrary to the politics of power. He acts on behalf of the powerless, not so as to ingratiate the nobles and the powerful. By ignoring the politics of power, he—remarkably—in turn gains a powerful empire.” Craig C. Broyles, Psalms, 297.

Hebrew Clauses – Diethelm Michel (Section 28)

Although his work consists of a detailed study of the Psalter, Diethelm Michel’s Tempora und Satzstellung in den Psalmen has an important section about the syntax of clauses in Hebrew (Section 5 of the work). For my own benefit and perhaps some out there who find such study interesting, I thought it might be helpful to present his results. (I did a similar summary of Wolfgang Schneider here.) In section 28, Michel lays out his understanding of the verbal clause and the nominal clause.

The Verbal Clause

  1. We refer to a clause as a verbal clause (VC) when it reports the performance of an action or the appearance of a characteristic.
  2. The predicate of a VC always consists of a finite verb.
  3. The finite verb always stands at the beginning of the clause; only adverbial qualification can step in before it. An explicit subject follows the verb in attributive position. An example of an adverbial phrase coming before the finite verb would be Ps 102:9a:

כָּל־הַ֭יּוֹם חֵרְפ֣וּנִי אוֹיְבָ֑י
all day my enemies surround me

The Nominal Clause

  1. We call a clause a nominal clause (NC) that makes a statement about a subject.
  2. A subject of the NC is a substantive or an equivalent of such (pronoun, substantive adjective or participle, substantive clause).
  3. A predicate of a nominal clause can be (1) a substantive, (2) an adjective (participle), (3) a pronoun, (4) an adverb, or (5) an entire clause. The last possibility is important in that it leads the third classification, the compound nominal clause.

The Compound Nominal Clause

  1. We call a clause a “compound nominal clause” when its predicate consists of an entire clause, a NC or a VC.
  2. In the predicate of the clause, a back-reference to the larger subject can take place.
  3. When a so-called copula is used in a nominal clause, it is regarded as a compound nominal clause.

Here are two examples, the first is a CNC with a NC as predicate, the second with a VC as predicate. Both have a nominal at the front about which a whole clause makes a claim.

Psalm 69:14
וַאֲנִ֤י תְפִלָּתִֽי־לְךָ֙׀ יְהוָ֡ה
As for me: my prayer is to you, Yhwh.

Psalm 103:19
יְֽהוָ֗ה בַּ֭שָּׁמַיִם הֵכִ֣ין כִּסְא֑וֹ
Yhwh [he has done this as a characteristic]:
he has established his throne in the heavens.